Journal of the Japanese Association of Regenerative Dentistry
J Jpn Assoc Regenerative Dent Vol.7(1) pp.34-46
ISSN 1348-9615


The Changes of Morphology and Composition in the Subgingival Calculus by Sex Differences and Aging

Hiroyuki MISHIMA1, Masahiro KITAHARA2, Saori MIYAMOTO3, Kazuo TANAKA4, Atsushi OOKUBO5, Akiyasu NISHINO1, Yuka OONO1, Yuko NAKAISHI1, Kayo NOMURA1, Saki WAZIKI1, Yasuo MIYAKE6
1Department of Medical Hygiene, Kochi Gakuen College, Kochi, Japan
2Department of Neurosurgery, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Nankoku, Japan
3Department of Dermatology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Nankoku, Japan
4Tanaka Dental Clinic, Shimanto, Japan
5Department of Histology, Cytology and Development, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Matsudo, Japan, Hiu Dental Academy, Sasebo, Japan
6Ultrastructural Section, Oral Health Science Center, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba, Japan

We examined the histology and age-related compositional changes of subgingival calculus in male and female. The calculus samples of male and female aged 10 to 60 were whitish. Samples from those in the 70's were yellowish. In polished samples from females, three lamella structures were clear and chromatic difference was present in lamina of inner layers, middle layers, and outer layers. In samples from both males and females, ages 10 to 20, scanning electron microscopy revealed spherical crystal structure of the calculus; in samples from 30 to 70-year olds, crystal structure was irregular. Granule diameters were found to be smallest in teenagers, largest in 40 to 49-year olds, and then gradually shrinking throughout aging. EPMA analysis revealed calculus composition to be, in decreasing amounts, Ca, P, Na and Mg. Samples from 70-year olds showed a higher Ca/P ratio than those from 10, 20 and 40-year olds. In the line analysis of EPMA, there was more Mg content in the dark band than in the light band. HA was detected by X-ray diffraction method in 10, 20, 40 and 70-year old samples, and OCP, W were detected in femalesfsamples of 10, 20 and 40-year olds.

Keyword: subgingival calculus, age changes, SEM-EDS, trace element